Proton1Discovery date1766
Electron1Discovered byHenry Cavendish
Neutron0Origin of nameThe is derived from greek “hydro” and gene meaning water forming
Group1Melting point C-259.16
Period1Boiling point C-252.879
BlockSDensity g/cm30.000082
Atomic no1Relative atomic mass1.008 gram
State at 20 CGasKey isotopes 
Electronic configuration1s1CAS no.1333-74-0
various properties of Hydrogen atom

Hydrogen Atom

An atom of the element hydrogen, known as a hydrogen atom, consists of a single proton with a positive charge and a single electron with a negative charge. These two particles are held together by the Coulomb force to form a neutral atom. Hydrogen atoms make up around 75% of the mass of all baryonic matter in the universe.

It is the colorless odorless and lowest density of all gases.

In everyday life on Earth, isolated hydrogen atoms are very rare and tend to combine with other atoms to form compounds or with another hydrogen atom to form H2 gas. The terms "atomic hydrogen" and "hydrogen atom" are similar yet have different meanings. For instance, while a water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms, it does not contain atomic hydrogen.

A hydrogen atom, also known as a hydrogen atom, is made up of one positively charged proton and one negatively charged electron. The Coulomb force holds these two particles together to create a neutral atom. About 75% of the mass of the universe's baryonic matter is made up of hydrogen atoms.

On Earth, single hydrogen atoms are extremely uncommon and typically combine to form compounds or H2 gas with another hydrogen atom. Despite being similar, the terms "atomic hydrogen" and "hydrogen atom" have different meanings. For instance, a water molecule does not contain atomic hydrogen despite having two hydrogen atoms in it.

Isotopes of Hydrogen

The three isotopes of hydrogen, the most prevalent element in the universe, are protium, deuterium, and tritium. Protium has a single proton and no neutrons in its nucleus, making up 99.98% of the naturally occurring hydrogen. Deuterium, which makes up 0.0156% of naturally occurring hydrogen, has a stable nucleus with one proton and one neutron. In industrial processes like nuclear reactors and nuclear magnetic resonance, it is used. In contrast, tritium has a half-life of 12.32 years and a nucleus made up of two neutrons and one proton. Due to its brief half-life, tritium is only found in small amounts in nature. Only synthetically created in particle accelerators, heavier hydrogen isotopes have half-lives on the order of 10-22 seconds. Beyond the neutron drip line, these isotopes are unbound resonances that immediately release a neutron. The Rydberg constant must be modified somewhat for each of the three hydrogen isotopes, despite the fact that their formulas are the same.

The different isotopes share identical electron configurations, which makes their chemical properties quite similar, but their atomic weights cause some of their physical properties to change. The vapour pressure of the elements tritium and deuterium is lower than that of regular hydrogen. Because of this, the heavier isotopes are concentrated in the last regions of liquid hydrogen to evaporate. Deuterium is produced through electrolysis of heavy water (D2O). Nuclear reactions are the main source of most tritium.

Hydrogen is Colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-toxic gas. It is composed of protium, deuterium, and tritium isotopes and is a diatomic molecule known as H2. These isotopes differ from other elements in that they have unique names and chemical symbols. While the physical features of the various isotopes differ from one another due to their distinct atomic masses, their chemical properties are remarkably similar. Due to their lower vapor pressure than regular hydrogen, deuterium and tritium are concentrated in the final bits of liquid hydrogen as it evaporates. While the majority of tritium is created through nuclear reactions, deuterium can be produced by electrolyzing heavy water.

Hydrogen Uses and Properties

The illustration represents Niels Bohr's 1913 atomic model. The least dense of all gases is hydrogen, an invisible gas. It has the potential to be a clean fuel made from water that may be utilised in fuel cells to create electricity without causing pollution. Making ammonia for fertilisers, plastics intermediates, and pharmaceuticals are just a few of the numerous uses for hydrogen in the chemical industry. Additionally, it is employed in the production of glass sheets, silicon chips, fuel refinement, and hydrogenation of oils. Even though it is found in water and all living things, hydrogen does not actively participate in biological processes. In the universe, including the sun, stars, and Jupiter, hydrogen is widely distributed. On Earth, water is the principal source of hydrogen. Hydrogen production involves heating natural gas with steam or electrolyzing water.

Discovery of Hydrogen

Alchemist Paracelsus noted in the early 1500s that the bubbles created when sulfuric acid was added to iron filings were combustible, and in 1671, Robert Boyle made a similar observation. They did not, however, look any further, and Henry Cavendish did not recognise these bubbles as a unique gas until 1766, when he named hydrogen. He also disproved the notion that water was an element by demonstrating that hydrogen burns to make water. The name "hydrogen" (which means "water-former") was given to the gas by Antoine Lavoisier.

Harold Urey and his Columbia University colleagues made the discovery of a second, less prevalent type of hydrogen in 1931. This form had twice the mass and was odourless than regular hydrogen. This new form was given the name deuterium.

Atomic model of hydrogen first proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913.

Some consider hydrogen petrol to be the clean fuel of the future since it is produced from water and decomposes back into water when it is oxidised. Fuel cells that run on hydrogen are currently being employed in some buses and autos because they are increasingly regarded as 'pollution-free' energy sources. The uses for hydrogen are countless. Through the Haber process, it is used in the chemical industry to produce ammonia for use as fertiliser for crops as well as the intermediates cyclohexane and methanol needed to generate plastics and pharmaceuticals. During the process of refining oil, it is also used to eliminate sulphur from fuels. Oils are hydrogenated to create fats, such as margarine, using large amounts of hydrogen.

For the purpose of creating flat glass sheets, hydrogen is employed in the glass industry as a protective environment. It is utilised as a cleansing gas in the electronics sector during the production of silicon chips. One of hydrogen's earliest practical applications was to fill balloons and airships due to its low density. However, it vigorously interacts with oxygen (to generate water), and the Hindenburg airship's fire put an end to its use in filling airships. Biologic function The element hydrogen is necessary for life. It can be found in practically every molecule in water and in living organisms. However, hydrogen does not function extremely actively on its own.

Natural abundance

The element hydrogen is by far the most prevalent in the universe. The majority of stars and the sun include it, and the planet Jupiter is primarily made of it. Water is where you'll find the most hydrogen on Earth. Less than 1 part per million by volume is all that is found of it as a gas in the air. Any hydrogen that does reach the atmosphere swiftly escapes its gravitational pull and travels to another planet. The majority of hydrogen is created by combining steam heated natural gas with hydrogen and carbon monoxide to create syngas. Hydrogen is produced by separating the syngas. Water can be electrolyzed to create hydrogen as well.