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Introduction to Paris Agreement & Conference of Parties COP
Introduction to Paris Agreement & Conference of Parties COP

The Paris Agreement is a landmark international treaty adopted in December 2015 at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The COP27 took place in 2021. COP27, or the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), was held in Glasgow, Scotland, from October 31 to November 12, 2021. It was a critical event where world leaders, negotiators, activists, and stakeholders gathered to address pressing issues related to climate change.

The main focus of COP27 was to assess progress made since the Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 and to ramp up global ambition to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Key discussions at COP27 revolved around enhancing countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), increasing financial support for climate action in developing countries, and strengthening adaptation measures.

One of the most significant outcomes of COP27 was the Glasgow Climate Pact, which outlined commitments from participating countries to accelerate climate action and set the stage for further negotiations and implementation of the Paris Agreement. The Glasgow Climate Pact emphasized the importance of ramping up efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, adapt to the impacts of climate change, and provide support to vulnerable countries and communities.

Overall, COP27 was a crucial moment in the global fight against climate change, highlighting the urgent need for collective action and cooperation to address one of the most pressing challenges of our time.

 Here's a summary of its key components of Paris Agreement:

Objective

The primary goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This ambitious target aims to mitigate the impacts of climate change and reduce the risks associated with extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other consequences.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

Each participating country is required to submit a Nationally Determined Contribution, outlining its voluntary commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. These contributions are intended to be nationally determined, reflecting each country's unique circumstances, capabilities, and priorities.

Transparency and Accountability

The Paris Agreement establishes a framework for transparency and accountability, requiring countries to regularly report on their emissions and progress towards their NDCs. This transparency framework aims to enhance trust among parties and facilitate the assessment of collective progress towards the agreement's objectives.

Global Stocktake

The agreement includes a mechanism for conducting a global stocktake every five years to assess collective progress towards the long-term goals of the agreement. This process involves reviewing the latest scientific findings on climate change, evaluating countries' NDCs, and identifying opportunities to enhance ambition and strengthen climate action.

Financial Support

The Paris Agreement reaffirms the commitment of developed countries to provide financial support to developing countries to assist them in both mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. This support may include financial resources, technology transfer, and capacity-building initiatives.

Adaptation

The agreement recognizes the importance of adaptation to the impacts of climate change, particularly for vulnerable communities and ecosystems. It calls for increased efforts to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate-related risks, including through adaptation planning, financing, and implementation.

Long-Term Goal

In addition to the temperature targets, the Paris Agreement includes a long-term goal to achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century. This goal reflects the need for a transition to a low-carbon, sustainable economy over the coming decades.

Overall, the Paris Agreement represents a significant milestone in global efforts to address climate change, fostering international cooperation and collective action towards a more sustainable and resilient future.

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