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Organic Pollutants in Ground Water & Research investigation 
Organic Pollutants in Ground Water & Research investigation 

Organic pollutants in underground water can come from various sources, including industrial activities, agriculture, urban runoff, and natural processes. These pollutants can pose significant risks to human health and the environment. Here are some common types of organic pollutants found in groundwater:

Pesticides and Herbicides

Chemicals used in agriculture to control pests and weeds can leach into groundwater, contaminating drinking water sources. Pesticides are used to protect crops from disease and increase production but excessive use can increase or unused organic pollutants leached to under ground water. Examples include atrazine, glyphosate, and chlorpyrifos.

Industrial Chemicals

Industrial activities can release a wide range of organic pollutants into the environment, including solvents, fuels, and by-products from manufacturing processes. Even hazardous waste of industrial units stored for long time or waiting for proper disposal also increase leaching to ground water. Industrial areas and urban areas are probably have high total dissolved solids in organic pollutants in ground water. Municipal effluent with leakage from drain lines and less protection also increase the ground water contamination and pollution. Industries uses high amount of chemicals in their premises due to their uses chemicals spills and also leaks and absorbed to soil and leashes to ground water. Examples include benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene (TCE).

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

PAHs are a group of organic compounds formed during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and organic matter. They can contaminate groundwater near industrial sites, gas stations, and urban areas. To overcome this issue vehicles and industrial units should always use machinery that uses less fuel and high combustion and less exhaust of organic compounds.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

VOCs are a group of organic chemicals that can easily evaporate into the air. They are often found in groundwater near industrial sites, landfills, and underground storage tanks. Industries are always bound to take care for these compounds, these compounds are comes from plastic, tyres, coal fired boilers and boilers with fuel of biomass which produces high amount of VOC and contaminate air, soil and under ground water. Examples include benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylene.

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

Residues from medications, cosmetics, and other personal care products can end up in groundwater through wastewater discharge or improper disposal. These pollutants can include antibiotics, hormones, and synthetic fragrances. From the recent research pharmaceuticals products are found in underground water mainly paracetamol group.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

EDCs are chemicals that can interfere with the body's hormonal system, leading to reproductive, developmental, and other health effects. They can be found in groundwater due to industrial releases, agricultural runoff, and household products.

Research Background

Many of the organic pollutants that have been found in drinking water are thought to be endocrine disruptors or human carcinogens. Over 200 organic pollutants have been found in groundwater, and the number is still rising (Lesser et al. 2018; Jurado et al. 2012; Lapworth et al. 2012; Sorensen et al. 2015). While certain organic pollutants are persistent, others can be broken down by the body. The primary sources of the biodegradable organic pollutants are industrial effluent and household sewage.

Many of these organic compounds are created by the body naturally from proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and oils. Microorganisms can then convert these organic compounds into stable inorganic compounds. They can lower the amounts of dissolved oxygen in groundwater, but they don't directly harm living things. According to Lapworth et al. (2015) and Meffe and Bustamante (2014), common organic pollutants include hydrocarbons, halogenated chemicals, plasticizers, pesticides, medications, personal care products, and natural estrogens. Numerous halogenated substances, such as those that are fluorinated, brominated, or chlorinated, can collect and become enriched in living things, including people. These organisms from higher trophic levels may be negatively impacted by these compounds (Gwenzi and Chaukura 2018; Schulze et al. 2019).

According to Lapworth et al. (2015), substances utilized in industrial operations, agriculture, and human health protection are the primary sources of persistent organic pollutants. These substances constitute a long-term risk to the quality of groundwater used for drinking since they break down very slowly or possibly never at all (Schulze et al. 2019).

Monitoring and regulating the levels of organic pollutants in groundwater is essential to protect human health and the environment. Treatment technologies such as activated carbon filtration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation processes can be used to remove organic pollutants from contaminated groundwater sources. Additionally, implementing best management practices in agriculture, industry, and urban areas can help reduce the sources of organic pollutants entering groundwater systems.

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