Soil Pollution Causes Effects and their Control Methods
Soil Pollution Causes Effects and their Control Methods

Soil pollution as a part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. Soil pollution can be caused by various factors including:

Industrial activities

Chemical spills, waste disposal, and emissions from factories can contaminate soil with heavy metals, solvents, and other harmful substances. There is a procedure for waste of industrial activities named as Hazardous and non hazardous waste plan. For these procedure industrial units shall bound to these certification and there should be incinerated either by own or given to any certified incinerated plant for their proper disposal. Hazardous waste management plan (HWMP) is the certification for any industrial unit for their approval from state Environmental Protection Agency EPA for proper disposal of waste.

Agricultural practices

Overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, improper disposal of agricultural waste, and soil erosion due to intensive farming can lead to soil pollution. Excess uses of fertilizer may leads to soil pollution may leads to surface water pollution and also for ground water pollution by means of leaching. Overuse of fertilizer may results of soil pollution but also leads to poor crop production.

Mining activities

Extraction of minerals and metals can release pollutants such as heavy metals and toxic chemicals into the soil, contaminating it over large areas. Like mining of coal, chromium ore, potassium, zinc, sodium chloride, and gold mining results the pollution of heavy and radioactive metals.

Improper waste disposal

Dumping of household waste, sewage sludge, and solid waste in landfills or open areas without proper containment measures can result in soil contamination. Dumping of waste should always be through proper waste procedure by state EPA procedure. Landfill sites are always defined by government department for proper waste. All types of waste should be dispose through proper procedure like HWMP or incinerated by proponent or waste producer and collector.

Urbanization and construction

Construction activities, urban sprawl, and improper management of construction waste can degrade soil quality and lead to soil pollution. Waste of construction like cement sand wood and paper of cement should always be wasted through proper plan. Waste cover the soil and cease the crop production leads to soil pollution.

Oil spills

Accidental spills of oil and petroleum products, whether from transportation or industrial facilities, can result in soil contamination, affecting both land and water ecosystem. Industries are bound to make proper method for accidental spill of oil and petroleum products of companies and transportation to minimize the soil pollution and save the product.


Clearing of forests for agriculture, urban development, or industrial purposes can disrupt soil structure and lead to erosion, reducing its fertility and causing pollution.

Forests are assets for human and earth environment for reduction of carbon foot print and also reduces the green house gases. To control deforestation reduce the use of wood product and repair the current furniture for daily use. It can also be controlled by reducing the industrial production of wood process. It has been seen that some wood work industries ate running their business without approval of EPA. Also observed that boilers are running on wood as fuel source due to shortage of fuel gas and high prices of diesel.

Atmospheric deposition

Airborne pollutants such as heavy metals, acid rain, and industrial emissions can settle onto the soil surface, contaminating it over time. Most of the airborne pollutants are caused by traffic on the road and 50 percent by industrial process. These air pollutant are absorbed by plants as dust and gases to road side plants if the number of green plants reduces it will deposit to soil as contamination. There are number of studies that shows that heavy metals pollution are seen in road side. The lead due to fuel addition, iron particle from vehicle body, carbon particles due to old wheels, and number of gases like SOx, NOx, CO2, carbon monoxide and organic pollutants near highways and roads of heavy vehicle.

Soil pollution can be reduced by these actions by individuals like vehicle with old wheels spread particles to environment. Road side dust spread to environment, smoke of faulty engines, particulate matter of carbon due to incomplete combustion, iron from their bodies. Pollution can be controlled by proper waste disposal, oil spill, reducing deforestation, mining activities control, proper use of fertilizer and major pollution contributors are industries fir their pollution control.

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