AQI for Top Polluted Cities in the World: Air Quality Monitoring
AQI for Top Polluted Cities in the World: Air Quality Monitoring

Air quality index shows the highest reading for Particulate matter only in all over the world, some studies and continuous monitoring shows that Indian city Dehli is the highest polluted highest AQI (Air Quality Index) is 537 Hazardous, with main pollutant is PM 10. PM 2.5 & 10 was 641 & 398 micro gram per cubic meter respectively.

Lahore Pakistan is the second most polluted city with AQI 196, and main pollutant is PM 2.5, with reading 224 micro gram per cubic meter. Third number is Dhaka Bangladesh with AQI 177 and main pollutant is PM 2.5 and reading was 105 micro gram per cubic meter.

Karachi Pakistan has 10th number AQI 139 for PM 2.5 and reading as 51 micro gram per cubic meter. It is proposed for the agencies and governments departments that their should be the analysis and monitoring for organic pollutants in air also as organic pollutants standard in water is stablished.

Ensuring that both outdoor and indoor air quality remains within acceptable limits has become a challenging task due to numerous sources emitting particulate pollutants into the environment. Apart from harmful gases, one of the crucial and detrimental pollutants released into the environment is Particulate Matter (PM).

Size of Particulate Matter 10 & 2.5

Many of us are familiar with the significance of measuring particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate matter is used to assess and monitor air quality and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Particulate matter can have adverse health effects when inhaled, especially fine particles like PM2.5 that can penetrate deep into the respiratory system, and by measuring it, we can implement effective pollution control measures and public health interventions to protect people and improve air quality and environment.

Sources of Particulate Matter

Particulate Matter (PM) is primarily composed of solid and liquid particles like smoke, dust, aerosols, mists, fumes, and condensed vapors that remain suspended in the air for extended periods. A significant portion of PM sources results from human activities, while a smaller fraction is attributed to natural processes. Human-related sources encompass industrial pollution, agriculture, the burning of fuels and wood, construction activities, and more.

Industrial Units Spreading Pollution

On the other hand, natural sources involve windblown particles and wildfires. PM10 is predominantly associated with dust, characterized by its larger suspended particles, while PM2.5 is linked to activities such as fuel combustion, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions, owing to its smaller particle size that remains suspended in the air.

Measurement of Particulate Matter

The growing emphasis on Particulate Matter Monitoring primarily stems from its impact on both human health and the environment. It is an integral component of air quality monitoring, encompassing the surveillance of harmful gases, wind speed, direction, and more. Particulate matter exerts adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of humans. Due to the minute size of fine particles, they can penetrate deeply into the lungs and access the gas exchange regions, leading to dispersion-related health concerns.

PM size Description

Furthermore, PM can have far-reaching environmental consequences. It can alter the planet's radiation balance, influence cloud formation processes, reduce visibility, and contribute to global warming. Consequently, monitoring fine particulate matter has become a necessity, particularly at industrial sites where dust and air monitoring is now routine. The data collected through sampling and monitoring play a critical role in making informed decisions aimed at reducing particulate matter in the atmosphere.

Monitoring for Particulate Matter

Almost every country have laws, rules and regulations that include ambient particulate monitoring in major cities. Along with government bodies below mentioned industries needs to monitor Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), and Particulate Matter of size 10 & 2.5 micron. Cement industry, Real Estate, construction Industry, Oil and gas, Mining, Fertilizer, Agriculture, Steel Manufacturing, Coal power plants and emission from power generators.

Fertilizer and Steel Manufacturing are Pollution Contributor

Instrument for Analysis

An Instrument commonly used to measure particulate matter is a particulate matter (PM) monitor. Which can include devices like beta attenuation monitors, light-scattering nephelometers, or real-time laser-based particle counters. The measurement of PM2.5 involves the use of specialized air quality monitoring equipment, which includes devices like beta attenuation monitors, light-scattering nephelometers, and real-time laser-based particle counters. These instruments are capable of detecting and quantifying particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller in the air, offering real-time or periodic data on PM2.5 concentration levels.

Instrument for Analysis Particulate Matter

These monitoring instruments collect air samples and employ diverse techniques to assess the extent of light scattering or attenuation caused by these fine particles. This methodology allows for precise and reliable evaluations of PM2.5 levels in the atmosphere. Particulate matter is measured in micrometers (μm) or microns. Particulate matter is categorized based on its aerodynamic diameter, with PM10 referring to particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller, and PM2.5 indicating particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller.

Methods of Analysis

Air pollutants are typically measured using three primary methods: continuous monitoring, passive monitoring, and grab sampling. Continuous monitoring employs automated instruments to provide real-time measurements. Passive monitoring relies on devices that collect pollutants over a specified period for subsequent analysis. Grab sampling, on the other hand, entails the manual collection of air samples at designated locations and times, which are then sent to a laboratory for analysis. For sampling grab sample is used for analysis of particulate matter randomly collected sample is used for laboratory analysis. PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller) is typically calculated using gravimetric analysis.

In this method, a high-volume air sampler collects a known volume of air over a specified time period. The collected particulate matter is dried then weighed, and the concentration of PM10 is calculated as the mass of particulate matter per unit volume of air sampled. The main difference between PM2.5 and PM10 lies in their particle size. PM2.5 refers to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller, while PM10 refers to particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. PM2.5 particles are smaller and can penetrate deep into the respiratory system, posing greater health risks, while PM10 particles are slightly larger and can be trapped in the upper respiratory tract.

The safe level of PM2.5 Is determined by air quality guidelines and standards set by health authorities and environmental agencies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the 24-hour average concentration of PM2.5 should not exceed 25 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m³) for the protection of public .

Particulate Matter analysis Assembly

The measurement of PM (Particulate Matter) refers to the quantification of the concentration of solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air. PM is typically measured in micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m³) of air, indicating the mass of particulate matter present in a given volume of air. Particulate matter of 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) is a major concern because of its small size. Which allows it to penetrate deep into the respiratory system and even enter the bloodstream when inhaled. Due to their fine nature, PM2.5 particles are more likely to carry harmful substances such as heavy metals and organic compounds, posing significant health risks, especially for vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.

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